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Terms starting with T


Tags are used in HTML to apply elements. Tags are contained within <   > symbols.

A program for creating and editing plain text files. Unlike word processors such as LibreOffice and Word, which create complex documents in the form of archives that include formatting information and other metadata, a plain text editor creates a single file. Programmers tend to use plain text files because computers can work with them easily. Sublime Text, Nano, and VI are examples of text editors.

The process of taking a list of words and transforming it into a more uniform sequence.

Published by the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research in 1979, the Belmont Report “”identifies basic ethical principles and guidelines that address ethical issues arising from the conduct of research with human subjects” (source:

The distance principle refers to “the extent to which Internet texts or data sets might connect to persons [even when] the conceptual or experiential distance between the researcher and author/participant [does not appear to be] close” (source:  Annette Markam and Elizabeth Buchanon.

A commission created as a result of the National Research Act of 1974, “charged with identifying the basic ethical principles that should underlie the conduct of biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects and developing guidelines to assure that such research is conducted in accordance with those principles” (source:

Tidy data are a way of processing and organizing data in to a data structure that follows these rules:

  1. Each variable is in a column.
  2. Each observation is a row.
  3. Each value is a cell.

An instance of a type (see “type” in this glossary).

A process of breaking text into individual linguistic units. This process often involves removing punctuation and making all words lowercase.

Along with syntax errors, traceback errors are a common type of error in Python code. It appears during the execution of the code, when Python is unable to continue, meaning that there is a problem with the flow of your program. Often, traceback errors point to undefined variables or functions. When a traceback error occurs, the interpreter will give you a little more information about the error. If it’s a name error, that means that something is not defined properly. If it’s a type error, that means that an operation or function is of the wrong type. Take a close look at the display message to get more information about your error, and help you with debugging.

A collection which is ordered and unchangeable. In Python tuples are written with parenthesis.

Python type() is a function that evaluates the data type of the object within the parenthesis. For a string "hello world", it will return: <str>; for an integer 5, it will return <int> and so on. Text analysis In our text analysis workshop, type means unique vocabulary items in a corpus. (Ex: “Whale” and “whale” are different types.)