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Terms starting with P

A way to identify the category of words in a given text. For a list of POS classification, see the Penn Tree Bank Tag Set

A list of folders on your system that are checked for programs to generate the list of commands available on the command line. For example, since the folder /bin is typically on the path, putting an executable program in that folder will make it available as a command.

Personhood is “the quality or condition of being a person; [especially] personal identity, selfhood” (Oxford English Dictionary online). When doing internet or digital research, it is important to consider how a person’s data, avatar, images, videos, audio files, social media and other forms of digital information may be understood as an expression of their personhood (source: the AoIR Ethics Working Committee’s 2012 report.

Phatic language is language primarily for communicating social closeness. Phatic words stand in contrast to semantic words, which contribute meaning to the utterance.

Stuart Hall et al.’s concept of “policing the crisis” refers to the unnatural process by which certain actions (by certain people) become and continue to be understood, reported, policed, and sanctioned as a type of “crime.” The police, the judicial system, and mainstream media “are actively and continuously part of [this] whole process” (source: Stuart Hall et al., Policing the Crisis, 2013 [1978], page 54.

a figure with three or more sides. In GIS, it usually refers to complex areas outlining lakes, city blocks, a set of buildings, or other complex features of the map, that can be outlined using interconnected points. A polygon can have an unlimited amount of points. The more points (or “higher the resolution”), the smoother the polygon will look to the human eye.

pop() is a method that removes the last item from a list.

print() is a function that “prints” or displays whatever is inside the parentheses in the terminal window. For example, running print("Hello World!") will output the string 'Hello World' to the terminal window.

Programming languages are used to transform data, by creating scripts that organize an output of data based on a particular input of data. Examples of programming languages include python and javascript.

Proprietary data file formats are file formats that rely on dedicated, licensed softwares and/or systems. These file formats are often copyrighted, patented, or have other restrictions placed on them, and often require a fee or a paid-for software to open. These file formats are usually discouraged in research projects, especially those with intentions to share with a wider public(s) and audience. This is distinct from open data formats. Some examples of it include .xslx, .doc, and .3ds.

Accepting and taking changes that were made to a remote repository, possibly by someone else, and updating your local repository to match.

A pull request is a set of proposed changes to a repository. If you wish to contribute to an open-source project, the most common method is by proposing changes through pull requests.

When you push your files, or use the command git push master origin, you are communicating with GitHub to update the connected project folder stored there. You are pushing the changes, say, to your syllabus.md file stored on their servers which you access via your gitHub.com.