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Terms starting with H

Antonio Gramsci’s concept of hegemony refers to “the ability of a dominant group to create [majority] consent and agreement [around a particular system of meanings] within a population without the use or threat of force” (source: Kenneth Guest, Cultural Anthropology: A Toolkit for a Global Age, 2014, page 52). Hegemony is one way of understanding how dominant forms of knowledge and power produce and reinforce each other.

High quality data is often understood as valid, accurate, complete, consistent, and uniformed. This is often achieved through the cleaning process. Measurements are valid when they conform to set constraints. They are accurate when they represent the correct values (often requiring cross-referencing trusted external sources). They are complete when they represent everything that might be known and are consistent when observations do not contradict each other. Measurements are uniform when the same unit of measure is used in all relevant measurements.

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is a markup language used to write web-based documents. It enables us to provide web browsers with information about the content of a document. We can, for example, indicate that some part of our document is a paragraph, image, heading, or link. The browser uses this information when displaying the document for users.

A human subject refers to “a living individual about whom an investigator (whether professional or student) conducting research obtains (1) data through intervention or interaction with the individual, or (2) identifiable private information” (source: However, according to the AoIR Ethics Working Committee’s 2012 report, “The definition of ‘human subject’ has become, unfortunately, a litmus test for whether or not one needs to undergo ethical review before conducting research… ‘human subject’ has never been a good fit for describing many internet-based research environments.”